1Marie-Louise von Franz, Patterns of Creativity Mirrored in Creation Myths (Zurich: Spring Publications, 1978), 5. Von Franz bases her conclusions on the images she has found on maps of antiquity.
2W. J. T. Mitchell, “Spatial Form in Literature: Toward a General Theory,” The Language of Images, ed. W. J. T. Mitchell (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980), 296. Mitchell reinforces his point with a quote from Ludwig Wittgenstein’s Philosophical Investigations: “A picture held us captive. And we could not get outside it, for it lay in our language and language seemed to repeat it to us inexorably.” (271).
I was attracted to mythology because of my fascination with the dramatic action of the stories and the feeling of magic that enters the world in which that action happens. But gradually I realized that on another level those marvelous tales were metaphorical expressions of essential aspects of the human condition. Each social group had obviously developed a body of myths by which it could understand the basic experiences of its existence, such as creation, death, and nature. Although these mythological stories might not be literally true, they do by analogy capture the essential truth both of the basic nature of being and of the society’s world view. Von Franz says that when people attempt to explain the unknown they are likely to depend on imagery from what they do know or on archetypal images which come out of their own inner experiences. Later I realized that these images are also found in primitive art. Mitchell explains that visual representation is not radically distinct from language, and Elizabeth Abel claims that the underlying concepts of myth and art are similar in that both express a common inner source in which the subject matter changes but the nature is the same. I was challenged to investigate the common denominators of the verbal and visual expressions of these insights and to do a comparative study of their metaphoric forms.
Red = word-for-word copy and paste
Orange = substitution of words
Green = reverse order of words or phrases
Blue = word-for-word copy without quoting the quote
“Transposing or substituting a few words will not create a paraphrase. In this example, after saying “I was attracted to” instead of “My earliest attraction,” the writer of this nearly verbatim piece of plagiarism simply used different words or reworded some short phrases: “was based on” was changed to “because of my”; “narratives” became “stories”; “pervades” became “happens”; “mythology” became “body of myths,” etc. In two other instances the order of the words was reversed: “creation, nature, and death” became “creation, death, and nature” and the order of “basic nature of being” was reversed with “society’s world view.” Both the paraphrased passage and the directly quoted passage is almost purely a word-for-word copy of the source, retaining even the sentence structure and organization of the original. Even the use of a footnote could not save this paragraph from being condemned.”
Markman, Robert H, et al. 10 Steps in Writing the Research Paper. Hauppauge, NY: Barron’s Educational Series, Inc, 2001.