1Marie-Louise von Franz, Patterns of Creativity Mirrored in Creation Myths (Zurich: Spring Publications, 1978), 5. Von Franz bases her conclusions on the images she has found on maps of antiquity.
2W. J. T. Mitchell, “Spatial Form in Literature: Toward a General Theory,” The Language of Images, ed. W. J. T. Mitchell (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980), 296. Mitchell reinforces his point with a quote from Ludwig Wittgenstein’s Philosophical Investigations: “A picture held us captive. And we could not get outside it, for it lay in our language and language seemed to repeat it to us inexorably.” (271).
“Changing a single word in a passage otherwise quoted verbatim does not produce a paraphrase. The starred passage (**) would still need to be in quotation marks and footnoted; the changes you make within a quoted passage should go in square brackets, as do all editorial changes and additions; ellipsis marks are used to indicate omissions from the source being quoted. Thus the starred (*) sentence above should be: I realized too that some of these images can be “found in primitive art . . . [which] is not radically distinct from language” according to Mitchell which shows, Elizabeth Abel says “that the underlying concepts of myth and art are similar.” The footnote number would then follow the quotation marks. When whole phrases are lifted out and are put into a framework of your own wording or into a “different” arrangement of the original, the result is also called plagiarism. In the example given, the [red words] are lifted verbatim from the original. Though you would never be expected to put quotation marks merely around such phrases as “I realized,” “when people attempt to explain,” or “inner experiences,” since they are part of our common idiom, you could not write such a sentence as the one marked ** and call it your own. This “rearrangement” is not really a paraphrasing. The sentence preceding it might be called a paraphrase but would still need a footnote; it is very awkwardly stated because the implications of the idea expressed were obviously not very clear to the writer. If all the underlined phrases were in quotation marks, the paragraph would resemble an old-fashioned patchwork quilt. It would also be quite unreadable and certainly not original. Not only is Markman not given credit for her work in the plagiarized version, but the sources she carefully documented have also been plagiarized.”
Markman, Robert H, et al. 10 Steps in Writing the Research Paper. Hauppauge, NY: Barron’s Educational Series, Inc, 2001.