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Resources for Researchers

Provides links and citations to articles, books, e-books on general research, qualitative, quantitative, mixed methods, action research, and more. Many of the resources listed here are available to ACU students through the online Library databases (e.g. P

Participant Observation

Becker, H. S., & Geer, B. (1957). Participant observation and interviewing: A comparisonHuman Organization, 16(3), 28-32.

Denzin, N. & Lincoln, Y. (2011) The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research, 4th Edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. (Partially available through Google Books) (ACU login required)

DeWalt, K. M., DeWalt, B. R., & Wayland, C. (1998). Participant observation. In H. R. Bernard (Ed.), Handbook of methods of cultural anthropology (pp. 259-299). Altamira Press.

Ely, M., Anzul, M., Freidman, T., Garner, D., & McCormack-Steinmetz, A. (1991). Doing qualitative research: Circles within circles. Falmer Press. (e-book; see ch.3) (ACU login required)

Ezwh, P.J. (2003). Integration and its challenges in participant observation. Qualitative Research, 3(2), 191-205.

Jorgensen, D.L. (1989). Participant Observation. Sage Publications. (e-book) (ACU login required)

Sage Knowledge Database has several chapters and encyclopedia entries on observation: structured, unstructured, participant, non-participant.

Spradley, J. (1980). Participant Observation. Holt, Rinehart and Winston.


Smith, J. A., Flowers, P., & Larkin, M. (2009). Interpretative phenomenological analysis: Theory, method and research. Sage. (Partially available through Google Books)

Gill, Michael J. (2014). The possibilities of phenomenology for organizational research. Organizational Research Methods, 17(2), 118-137. doi: 10.1177/1094428113518348 -

Groenewald, T. (2004). A phenomenological research design illustrated. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 3(1), 42-55.

Moustakas, C. (1994). Phenomenological research methods. SAGE Publications.

Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) which comes out of the UK psychology: and

Vagle, M. D. (2014). Crafting phenomenological research. Left Coast Press. (Very Good. Start here!)

Van Manen, M. (1990). Researching lived experience: Human science for an action sensitive pedagogy. SUNY Press. (Large parts available in Google books)