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Resources for Researchers

Provides links and citations to articles, books, e-books on general research, qualitative, quantitative, mixed methods, action research, and more.

Rigor in Qualitative Research

Carcary, M. (2011). The research audit trail: Enhancing trustworthiness in qualitative inquiryThe Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods, 7(1), 11-24.

Johnson, R.B. (1997). Examining the validity structure of qualitative research. Education, 118(2), 282-293.

Koch, T. (2006). Establishing rigour in qualitative research: the decision trail. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 53(1), 91-100.  (ACU login required)

Onwuegbuzie, A. J., Leech, N. L., & Collins, K. M. (2008). Interviewing the interpretive researcher: A method for addressing the crises of representation, legitimation, and praxisInternational Journal of Qualitative Methods7(4), 1-17.

Pratt, M. G., Kaplan, S., & Whittington, R. (2019). Editorial essay: The tumult over transparency: Decoupling transparency from replication in establishing trustworthy qualitative researchAdministrative Science Quarterly.  (ACU login required)

Shenton, A. K. (2004). Strategies for ensuring trustworthiness in qualitative research projects. Education for Information, 22(2), 63-75.

Whittemore, Chase, & Mandle (2001). Validity in qualitative research. Qualitative Health Research, 11, 117-132.


Farmer, T., Robinson, K., Elliott, S. J., & Eyles, J. (2006). Developing and implementing a triangulation protocol for qualitative health research. Qualitative Health Research, 16(3), 377-394.

Hussein, A. (2009). The use of triangulation in social sciences research: Can qualitative and quantitative methods be combined? Journal of Comparative Social Work, 4(1), 1-12.

Jick, T. D. (1979). Mixing qualitative and quantitative methods: Triangulation in actionAdministrative Science Quarterly, 24(4), 602-611.

Meijer, P. C., Verloop, N., & Beijaard, D. (2002). Multi-method triangulation in a qualitative study on teachers’ practical knowledge: An attempt to increase internal validity. Quality & Quantity, 36, 145-167.

Olsen (2004). Triangulation in social research: Qualitative and quantitative methods can really be mixed. In M. Holborn (Ed.), Development in Sociology (pp. 1-30). Causeway Press.